Characteristics Of Solids Liquids And Gases Pdf
Many solids composed of ions can also be quite brittle. Consequently, liquids are much denser than gases. As in gases, however, the molecules in liquids are in constant motion, and their kinetic energy and hence their speed depends on their temperature.
In a liquid, the particles are still in close contact, so liquids have a definite volume. The state the water is in depends upon the temperature.
Unlike the molecules in gases, however, the arrangement of the molecules in a liquid is not completely random. This statement describes the gas state. Mercury has a relatively high surface tension, which makes it very unique. Here you see mercury in its common liquid form.
Each state solid, liquid, and gas has its own unique set of physical properties. Due to the strong intermolecular forces between neighboring molecules, solids are rigid. Skills to Develop To be familiar with the kinetic molecular description of liquids. Water can take many forms.
However, because the particles can move about each other rather freely, a liquid has no definite shape and takes a shape dictated by its container. Most metals exist as solids at room temperature. All substances can exist in any of these three states.
Summary Three states of matter exist - solid, liquid, and gas. Increasing the pressure on a substance forces the molecules closer together, which increases the strength of intermolecular forces.
Properties of Gases
This state allows the individual particles to move about while remaining in contact. Skills to Develop To describe the solid, liquid and gas phases.
Heating and cooling can change the kinetic energy of the particles in a substance, and so, we can change the physical state of a substance by heating or cooling it. However, when returned to room temperature conditions, mercury does not exist in solid state for long, and returns back to its more common liquid form. This describes the liquid state. Technically speaking a fourth state of matter called plasma exists, but it does not naturally occur on earth, so we will omit it from our study here. Below is an overview of the general properties of the three different phases of matter.
However, these also affect liquids and solids too. This statement describes the liquid state.
This state has no definite volume. Gases have no definite shape or volume. The physical properties of a substance depends upon its physical state. In contrast, the molecules in liquids are very close together, with essentially no empty space between them.
Compression would force the atoms on adjacent molecules to occupy the same region of space. Molecules in a liquid are in constant motion. Glass is one example of an amorphous solid.
Solids have a definite shape and volume. Like liquids, gases have no definite shape, but unlike solids and liquids, gases have no definite volume either. Gases If the particles of a substance have enough energy to completely overcome intermolecular interactions, then the particles can separate from each other and move about randomly in space. Liquids If the particles of a substance have enough energy to partially overcome intermolecular interactions, then the particles can move about each other while remaining in contact.
11.1 A Molecular Comparison of Gases Liquids and Solids
We begin our discussion by examining some of the characteristic properties of liquids to see how each is consistent with a modified kinetic molecular description. The kinetic molecular theory of gases gives a reasonably accurate description of the behavior of gases. The state of a substance depends on the balance between the kinetic energy of the individual particles molecules or atoms and the intermolecular forces.
3.3 Classifying Matter According to Its State Solid Liquid and Gas
The result is a net flow of liquid out of the container. Images used with permission public domain. Water vapor, liquid water and ice all have the same chemical properties, but their physical properties are considerably different.
Most solids are hard, but some like waxes are relatively soft. Solids usually have their constituent particles arranged in a regular, doc to pdf php three-dimensional array of alternating positive and negative ions called a crystal.
Thus the volumes of liquids are somewhat fixed. This state has individual particles far apart from each other in space.
Thus unlike the ions in the ionic solids, the molecules in liquids are not arranged in a repeating three-dimensional array. Liquids have a definite volume, but take the shape of the container. This state has individual particles in a fixed position with regard to each other. The density of a liquid is typically about the same as the density of the solid state of the substance.
It is the only metal we know of that is liquid at room temperature. This state has a definite shape. Mercury also has an ability to stick to itself surface tension - a property all liquids exhibit.
Because of their higher kinetic energy compared to the molecules in a solid, however, the molecules in a liquid move rapidly with respect to one another. Mercury can be solidified when its temperature is brought to its freezing point.
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