Pharmaceutical Suspension Pdf

Color aids in identification of the product. Colors are obtained from natural or synthetic sources. In deflocculated suspension systems, the particle dispersed carry a finite charge on their surface.

Here a basic substance is mixed with a bitter tasting drug which is insoluble at high pH. It should effectively deliver the product without any difficulty. Different equipments called viscometers are used to measure viscosity of different fluids and semisolids. Here, the sedimentation depends not only on the size of the flocs but also on the porosity of flocs. It is soluble in both hot and cold water.

Effect of processing should not affect the integrity of the closure. Flocculating agents They are added to floc the drug particles Thickeners They are added to increase the viscosity of suspension. In simple words the viscosity is the opposing force to flow, it is characteristic of the medium.

Pharmaceutical Suspensions pdf

Similarly drugs which are soluble at low pH are preferably maintained in suspension at a high pH where the drug is insoluble. The Structured Vehicle concept is not applicable to flocculated suspension because settled floccules get easily redispersed on shaking. Bioequivalence of Encapsulated and Microencapsulated Fish-oil Supplementation.

They are added to increase patient acceptance. Appearance Gas and vapor transmission.

No Sedimentation Diameter can be defined. So, the amount of the drug in the solution remains constant inspite of the decomposition with time, Thus, primarily suspensions behave as a zero order. Prednisolone suspension To prevent degradation of drug or to improve stability of drug. The difference in viscosity is dependent on extent on polymerization. Formulation Development Dr.

During this tenure in pharmaceutical industry, Dr. There are mainly five factors which is to be considered during selection of plastic as a packaging material for suspension. Flocculated Suspensions In flocculated suspension, reading pdf on kindle for pc formed flocs loose aggregates will cause increase in sedimentation rate due to increase in size of sedimenting particles. Per-cutaneous absorption of Benzocaine increases as the viscosity of suspension increases. More From GopalaKrishnan Sivaraman.

Rheopexy is the phenomenon where sol forms a gel more rapidly when gently shaken than when allowed to form the gel by keeping the material at rest. In short, the bio-availability of the oral suspension can be optimized by selecting the appropriate drug particle sizes, site of optimal absorption, particle densities and vehicle viscosities.

But a concentrated suspension affects the physical stability of the suspension. The pressure distribution in this type of suspension is uniform at all places, i. Sugar sweetener concentration is dependent on the degree of sweetening effect required by particular suspension. But when the sedimentation is complete, the particles form a closed pack arrangement with the smaller particles filling the voids between the larger ones. The sediment is loosely packed.

Dr. Mukesh Gohel

As this charge Electro-negative charge increases, more material can be carried in suspension by liquid. Handbook of Pharma Generic Develop. Also typical test for extractable material is some time carried out. For example, older formulation of eye drops, contain combination of methyl and propyl paraben, which provide antifungal and antibacterial property. Suitable antioxidants used are as follows.

To overcome this problem or to reduce it to some extent, the term Structured vehicle has got importance. Cinnamon oil, water Lemon oil Tolu balsam syrup.

Sedimentation velocity v is directly proportional to the square of diameter of particle. Thixotropic substances on applying shear stress convert to sol fluid and on standing they slowly turn to gel semisolid. It behaves like a reservoir depot. Quantitative amounts of each sample Allowable variability, etc. Clinical effectiveness of Nitrofurantoin suspension increases as the viscosity of the suspension increases.

They reduce zeta potential near to zero value that results in formation of bridge between adjacent particles, which lines them together in a loosely arranged structure. High viscosity creates problems in handling of the material during manufacturing. The main disadvantage of suspension dosage form that limits its use in the routine practice is its stability during storage for a long time.

Pharmaceutical Suspensions ...pdf

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Deformation of polyethylene containers is often caused by permeation of gas and vapours from the environment. Once this energy barrier is crossed, the particles come in close contact with each other and establish strong attractive forces.

Under the opinion of qualified experts they are safe in normal conditions. This curve does not pass through the origin. With continued addition of the electrolyte, the zeta potential eventually falls to zero and then increases in negative directions.

Preservatives They are added to prevent microbial growth. Advantages and Disadvantages due to viscosity of medium Advantages High viscosity inhibits the crystal growth. Here like granulation of powders, when adequate liquids are present to form the link, compact agglomerate is formed. The velocity of the falling ball is measured and viscosity is calculated using stokes law.

Dr. Mukesh Gohel

Non-ionic surfactants are most commonly used as wetting agents in pharmaceutical suspension. But most of pharmaceutical suspension formulation has conc.

Clearance rate of colloidal solutions from the nasal cavity can be decreased by increasing their iscosity. In deflocculated suspension larger particles settle fast and smaller remain in supernatant liquid so supernatant appears cloudy whereby in flocculated suspension, even the smallest particles. The mechanism by which they provide wetting is that they are miscible with water and reduce liquid air interfacial tension. The interpretation of the apparent thickness of the diffusion layer fundamentally differentiates each model. This test is done for the dispersed phase and dispersion medium.

The drug particulates may involve insoluble active structures or active either soluble or insoluble in degradable polymeric structures. It is a type of capillary viscometer.